Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a powerful tool that uses electromagnetic waves to obtain 3-dimensional images of natural or man-made structures and subsoil. It is employed in a large variety of applications in which non-destructive investigations are required. This paper deals with the use of GPR for the evaluation of moisture content in wood. The results of our work are of great interest for the preservation of timber structures, as moisture content is highly relevant to wood deterioration.
Hamza Reci, Tien Chinh Maï, Zoubir Mehdi Sbartaï, Lara Pajewski, and Emanuela Kiri
Application of elementary particle physics to the measurements of rock overburden density structures that might be directly applicable to natural resources and undiscovered cave explorations, and even to searching for hidden chambers in historic architectural structures.
H. K. M. Tanaka and M. Ohshiro
Physically based models that predict the properties of snow on the ground are used in many applications, but meteorological input data required by these models are hard to obtain in cold regions. Monitoring at the Sodankyla research station allows construction of model input and evaluation datasets covering several years for the first time in the Arctic. The data are used to show that a sophisticated snow model developed for warmer and wetter sites can perform well in very different conditions.
R. Essery, A. Kontu, J. Lemmetyinen, M. Dumont, and C. B. Ménard
Temperature-sensor-incorporated waders worn by the public can give scientists an additional source of information on stream water-groundwater interaction. A pair of waders was equipped with a thermistor and calibrated in the lab. Field tests in a deep polder ditch with a known localized groundwater contribution showed that the waders are capable of identifying the boil location. This can be used to decide where the most interesting places are to do more detailed and more expensive research.
R. Hut, S. Tyler, and T. van Emmerik
This paper discussed the effect of temperature on the accuracy of submersible strain gauge pressure transducers. The results show that rapid change of temperature introduces errors in the water level reading while the absolute temperature is also related to the sensor errors. The former is attributed to venting and the latter is attributed to temperature compensation effects in the strain gauges. Performance tests are necessary before field deployment to ensure the data quality.
Z. Liu and C. W. Higgins
The paper is devoted to mathematical modelling of propagation of seismic waves in inhomogeneous media. The trial and error method for determining the angles of orientation of fault plane and earthquake mechanism has been proposed. The graphic and trial and error approaches have been applied for determining the source parameters of earthquakes in the seismically active region of eastern Carpathian.
A. Pavlova, O. Hrytsai, and D. Malytskyy
This paper presents the development considerations and design for ground-based instrumentation that is being deployed on the East Antarctic Plateau along a 40° magnetic meridian chain to investigate interhemispheric magnetically conjugate geomagnetic coupling and other space-weather-related phenomena.
C. R. Clauer, H. Kim, K. Deshpande, Z. Xu, D. Weimer, S. Musko, G. Crowley, C. Fish, R. Nealy, T. E. Humphreys, J. A. Bhatti, and A. J. Ridley